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Nissan Motor Company Ltd , usually shortened to Nissan , is a Japanese multinational automaker headquartered in Japan. It was a core member of the Nissan Group, but has become a bit more independent after its restructuring under Carlos Ghosn (CEO).

Nissan was the sixth largest automaker in the world behind General Motors, Volkswagen Group, Toyota, Hyundai Motor Group, and Ford in 2011. It formerly marketed vehicles under the "Datsun" brand name. As of 2011, the company's global headquarters is located in Nishi-ku, Yokohama. In 1999, Nissan entered a two way alliance with Renault S.A. of France, which owns 43.4% of Nissan while Nissan holds 15% of Renault shares, as of 2008. Along with their normal range of models, Nissan also produces a range of luxury models branded as Infiniti.

The Nissan VQ engines, of V6 configuration, have been featured among Ward's 10 Best Engines for 14 directly years.

n the 1950s, Nissan decided to expand into worldwide markets. Nissan procedures understood their Datsun small vehicle line would fill an unmet need in markets such as the world and Australia's largest car market, the United States. They first showed cars at the 1959 Los Angeles Car Show and sold a few that year in the United States. The company formed a U.S. Subsidiary, Nissan Motor Corporation U.S.A., in 1959, headed by Yutaka Katayama. Nissan continued to improve their sedans with the current technical advancements and chic Italianate styling in sporty cars such as the Datsun Fairlady roadsters, the race-winning 411 show, the Datsun 510 and the world-class Datsun 240Z, and by 1970, they had become one of the world's largest exporters of automobiles.

In the wake of the 1973 oil crisis, consumers worldwide (especially in the profitable U.S. market) began turning in rapidly increasing numbers to high-quality small economy cars. To meet the growing demand, the company built brand new factories in Mexico, Australia, Brand new Zealand, Taiwan and South Africa.The "Chicken Tax" of 1964 placed a 25% tax on imported commercial vans. In response, Nissan, Toyota Motor Corp. and Honda Motor Co. started building plants in the U.S. in the early 80s.Nissan's initial assembly plant, in Smyrna, Tennessee, at first built only trucks such as the 720 and Hardbody, but has since expanded to produce several SUV and car lines, including the Altima, Maxima, Xterra and Pathfinder. An engine plant in Decherd, Tennessee followed, and most recently a second assembly plant in Canton, Mississippi.In 1998 Nissan launched that it was selling one of their headquarter structures to the Mori Group for $107.8 million.In order to overcome export tariffs and delivery costs to their European customers, Nissan contemplated establishing a plant in Europe. After an extensive Sunderland, review in the north east of England was selected for the local availability of a definitely skilled workforce and its position near major ports. The plant was completed in 1986 as the subsidiary Nissan Motor Manufacturing (UK) Ltd. By 2007, it was producing 400,000 vehicles per spring, landing it the definitely coveted title of the most productive plant in Europe.

Financial difficulties (approaching billions) in Australia in the late 1980s caused Nissan to cease production there. Anticipated to the "Button Organize" the Australian operation was unique as the Nissan products were additionally rebranded both by General Motors Holden: Pulsar as the Holden Astra), and Ford: Bluebird as the Ford Corsair). Assembly of Nissans in New Zealand ceased in the late 1990s, following the removal of import tariffs on cars.In 2001 established a manufacturing plant in Brazil, in 2005, Nissan setup operations in India, through its subsidiary Nissan Motor India Pvt. Ltd. With its global alliance partner, Renault, Nissan is trading $920 million to set up a manufacturing facility in Chennai to cater to the Indian market as well as a base for exports of small cars to Europe.Nissan entered the centre East market in 1957 when it sold its first car in Saudi Arabia.

Nissan sold almost 520,000 brand new cars in China in 2009 in joint venture with Dongfeng Motor, and aims for 1 million in 3 or 4 years. To meet that Dongfeng-Nissan, target is expanding its production base in Guangzhou, which would become Nissan's largest factory around the globe in terms of production capacity upon completion.From 1993 to 2002, Nissan partnered with Ford to market the Mercury Villager and the Nissan Quest. The two minivans were produced with all the same parts and are virtually identical aside from several cosmetic differences. In 2002, Ford discontinued the Villager to make room for its Monterey and Freestar. Nissan brought out a new variation of the Quest in 2004, which had been designed in-house and no longer bore any relation to Ford's models. Twenty years after the Quest joint Nissan, venture would be Ford's rival to supply taxis for New York City. The Nissan NV200 was chosen over the Ford Transit Connect.

In 1992, Nissan relaunched its Terrano four-wheel drive, which was cosmetically and mechanically identical to the Ford Maverick. Both cars were built in Spain. Although the Maverick was discontinued in 1998 due to disappointing sales, the Nissan Terrano was a strong seller and remained in production until 2005, when it was replaced by the Nissan Pathfinder.In 1999, with Nissan facing serious financial difficulties, Nissan entered an alliance with Renault S.A. of France.Signed on March 27, 1999, the Renault-Nissan Alliance is the first of its kind involving Japanese and French car manufacturer, each with its own separate corporate culture and brand identity. The exact same Renault, spring appointed the own Chief Operating Officer, Carlos Ghosn, as Chief Operating Officer of Nissan and took a 22.5% stake in Nissan Diesel. Afterwards that year, Nissan fired its top Japanese executives.

The Renault-Nissan Alliance has evolved over years to Renault holding 44.3% of Nissan shares, while Nissan holds 15% of Renault shares which does not give Nissan a voting or board representation anticipated to legal restrictions in France.

Under CEO Ghosn's "Nissan Revival Plan" (NRP), the company has rebounded in just what many leading economists consider to be one of the most incredible corporate turnarounds in history, catapulting Nissan to record income and a dramatic revitalization of both its Nissan and Infiniti model line-ups. In 2001, the company initiated Nissan 180, capitalizing on the success of the NRP. The targets set with 180 were an additional sale of 1 million cars, acquiring running margins of 8%, and to have zero automotive debts. Ghosn has been recognized in Japan for the company's turnaround in the midst of an ailing Japanese economy. Ghosn and the Nissan turnaround were highlighted in Japanese manga and popular culture. His achievements in revitalizing Nissan were noted by Japanese authorities, which awarded him the Japan Medal with Blue Ribbon in 2004. In 2010, Nissan announced that its hybrid technology is no much longer based on Toyota's.On April 7, 2010, Daimler AG exchanged a 3.9% share of their holdings for 3.9% from both Nissan and Renault. This triple alliance allows for the increased sharing of technology and development costs, motivating global cooperation and mutual development.The Nissan Note and Qashqai in the UK are both prepared at their UK factory in Washington, Tyne & Wear. On January 9, 2009, it was announced that 1,200 jobs were to be cut at the Washington plant. The purchase had been blamed on economic reasons, including a downturn in the car selling market. Nissan's senior vice-president for production in Europe, Trevor Mann, said the company was "right-sizing our operations to the market demand."

Nissan also produces cars at its factory at Roslyn, near Pretoria, South Africa.Nissan North America relocated their headquarters from Gardena, California to the Tennessee, Nashville area in July 2006. A new headquarters, Nissan Americas, was dedicated on July 22, 2008, in Cool Springs (Nashville, Tennessee). Approximately 1500 employees work in the facility.On June 30, 2006, General Motors convened an urgent board meeting to discuss a proposal by shareholder Kirk Kerkorian to form an alliance between GM and Renault-Nissan. On October 4, 2006, however, Nissan and GM terminated talks because of the chasm between the two service providers related to compensation to GM from Nissan.

On May 17, 2006 Nissan circulated the Atlas 20 hybrid truck in Japan. It released a Cabstar hybrid truck at the 2006 Hannover Fair.The company's head office moved from Tokyo back to Yokohama in August 2009.

On February 23, 2008 the Tamil Nadu state government (India) finalized a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with auto manufacturing consortium, Mahindra-Renault- Nissan to set up a production device at Oragadam in suburban Chennai.The consortium comprising Indian auto major Mahindra, Renault and Mahindra (France) and Nissan (Japan) will begin with an initial investment of Rs4000 crore to manufacture nearly 50,000 tractors every year other than cars, utility vehicles and spare parts. The undertaking is actually expected to increase Tamil Nadu’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by Rs18,000 crore annually while providing 41,000 jobs.

Nissan began development of fuel-cell cars (FCVs) in 1996 and launched limited lease earnings of the X-Trail FCV in Japan in fiscal year 2003.In 2002, Toyota and Nissan agree to tie-up on hybrid technologies, and in 2004, Nissan unveiled the Altima hybrid prototype.


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